Planning for teaching and learning in EFL Effects of standardisation and standardised testing on the learning and teaching of EFL at lower secondary level


Mewald, C. (2016). Planning for teaching and learning in EFL Effects of standardisation and standardised testing on the learning and teaching of EFL at lower secondary level. R&E-SOURCE, (5). Abgerufen von


This paper describes the washback of competence orientation and competence oriented testing on planning teaching and learning in English as a foreign language (EFL) at Austrian lower secondary schools. It analyses the perceived needs of teachers working in EFL classrooms in general secondary, new middle and academic secondary schools based on a mixed methods study. This study relies on data from on-line surveys, interviews, non-participant observation and document research and this paper puts a focus on planning teaching and learning. Findings point towards the need to encourage long-term planning on the basis of a set of descriptors for each of the four years of lower secondary foreign language education to build a basis for assessing and testing communicative competence at beginner and lower intermediate level in order to provide formative feedback that can inform the planning of teaching and learning in EFL classrooms.



Alderson, C. J., & Wall, D. (1993). Does washback exist? Applied Linguistics, 14, pp. 115-29.

Auerbach, E. (1986). Competency-based ESL: one step forward or two steps back? TESOL Quaterly, 20(3), pp. 411-430.

Bachman, L., & Palmer, A. (2010). Language Assessment in Practice. Oxford: OUP.

BIFIE (Ed.). (2011-2014a). Kompetenzen und Modelle. Retrieved 03 10, 2014, from

BIFIE (Ed.). (2012). Handbuch zur Standardüberprüfung in Englisch, 8. Schulstufe . Retrieved August 20, 2014, from BIFIE:

BIFIE. (2014). Bildungsstandards Muster-Rückmeldung Schulbericht I Englisch 8. Schulstufe. (BIFIE, Ed.) Retrieved August 20, 2014, from BIFIE:

BIFIE. (2014). Standardüberprüfung 2013. Englisch, 8.Schulstufe. Bundesergbnisbericht. Salzburg: BIFIE.

BIFIE&ÖSZ (Ed.). (2011). Praxishandbuch. Bildungsstandards für Fremdsprachen (Englisch) 8. Schulstufe. Graz: Leykam.

Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan 80(2), pp. 139-148.

BMBF (Ed.). (2008). Lehrplan Lebende Fremdsprache. Retrieved 03 20, 2014, from

BMBF (Ed.). (2009). Verordnung der Bundesministerin für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur über Bildungsstandards im Schulwesen StF: BGBl. II Nr. 1/2009. Retrieved 03 10, 2014, from

BMBF. (2016). Lehrplan Lebende Fremdsprache. (BMUKK, Editor) Retrieved 03 20, 2014, from

BMUKK. (2009). Verordnung der Bundesministerin für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur über Bildungsstandards im Schulwesen StF: BGBl. II Nr. 1/2009. (BMUKK, Ed.) Retrieved 03 10, 2014, from

Brumfit, C., & Johnson, K. (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, pp. 1-47.

Cheng, L. (2005). Changing Language Teaching through Language Testing. Cambridge: CUP.

Cheng, L., Watanabe, Y., & Curtis, A. (Eds.). (2004). Washback in Language Testing: Research Contexts and Methods. Mahwah: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.

Council of Europe, E. (Ed.). (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Feig, A. D., & Alison, S. (Eds.). (2011). Qualitative Enquiry in Geoscience Education Research (Vol. Special Paper 474). Boulder: The Goelogical Society America.

Gassner, O., Horak, A., Mewald, C., Moser, W., Schober, M., Stefan, F., & Valsky, C. (2005). Bildungsstandards in Österreich. Fremdsprachen. Englisch 8. Schulstufe. Version September‘05. Wien: bmbwk.

Green, A. (2007). IELTS Washback in Context. Cambridge: CUP.

Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. Pride, & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: selected readings. (pp. 269–293). Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An Eduactional Psychology Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative Learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), pp. 365-379.

Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N. E. (2000). Measurement and assessment in teaching (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Lovelock, C. (1996). The Post-PPP Debate: an alternative model? The Teacher Trainer, 2(6), pp. 3-6.

Mewald, C. (2014a). Competency based foreign language education: Training tips 1. Bildungsstandards Englisch 8: Unterrichtsvideos und Begleitmaterialien. (BIFIE, Ed.) Salzburg.

Mewald, C. (2014b). Planning competency based foreign language lessons. Bildungsstandards Englisch 8. Unterrichtsvideos und Begleitmaterialien. Salzburg: BIFIE.

Mewald, C. (2015). The impact of standardised testing on classroom teaching and testing in lower secondary foreign language educaction in Austria: a mixed method study. In S. Dawadi, J. Mader, & Z. Urkun (Ed.), Language testing: Current trends and future needs. Granada: IATEFL (TEA SIG).

Nunan, D. (1991). Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum. TESOL Quarterly, 25(2), pp. 279 – 295.

Richards, J. C., & Rogers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (Vol. Second Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shohamy, E. (1993). The power of tests: The impact of language tests on teaching and learning. NFLC Occasinal Paper. Washington: National Foreign Language Center.

Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, J., & Chappuis, S. (2006). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning. Doing It Right - Using It Well. Portland: Educational Testing Service.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Swain, M. (1985). Large-scale communicative testing: A case study. In Y. Lee, A. C. Fok, R. Lord, & G. Low, New directions in language testing (pp. 35-36). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In J. P. Lantolf, Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (pp. 97-115). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wall, D. (2005). The impact of high-stake testing on teaching and learning. Cambridge: CUP . Cambridge: CUP.

Watanabe, Y. (1997). Washback effects of the Japanese entrance examination: Classroom-based research. Lancaster University: Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Pearson.